How were sage health benefits found?
Sage belongs to Salvia genus and scientifically known as Salvia officinalis. Mediterranean region is the native place of this plant. This is a traditional herbal ingredient which can treat many diseases including gastrointestinal problem, circulatory disorders, respiratory issues like cough, bronchitis, asthma, and many other diseases like excessive sweating, depression, skin problem, angina, mouth and throat inflammations, etc. These therapeutic benefits obtain due to essential oil obtain from sage able to act on the digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and metabolic and endocrine system. In general, the sage essential oil is a good herbal remedy acts as an astringent, antispasmodic, antiseptic, and carminative properties. 
In ancient medical history reported that Roman, Greek and Egyptian peoples used Sage as a medicine. In traditional treatment culture of Native Americans had burned dried sage to indicate healing, protection, longevity, and wisdom. 
Sage belongs to Salvia genus and Lamiaceae family. Salvia genus has 900 different species and widely grow all over the world with different colored flowers. This perennial plant has a distinct aroma. Salvia officinalis is one of the most common sage species abundantly grows in the Mediterranean region. 
In present generation has used sage as a dietary supplement for digestive problems, depression, sore throat, and memory loss. There are different dosage forms are available in the market as a tablet, capsule, spray and liquid dosage forms. 
What are the phytochemicals present in Sage?
The phytochemical composition in Sage is not fixed. A genetic condition, climatic changes, seasonal and environmental factors are some variables which can change the phytochemical composition. Essential oil, flavonoids, and terpenoids are mainly present in different species of Sage. The therapeutic properties like antimicrobial, antioxidant, free radical scavenging agents and anticancer benefits are obtained due to the presence of essential oil. S. officinalis is the mostcommon species of sage contain the highest amount of essential oil compared to the other species of Sage.
The essential oil obtained from sage contains 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, bornyl acetate, α- and β-thujone, α- and β-caryophyllene, α- and β-pinene, camphene, linalool, α-humulene, pimaradiene, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid, carnosolic acid, ursolic acid, and viridiflorol.
The α- and β-thujone, camphor, 1,8-cineole are certain active phytochemicals responsible for compounds therapeutic benefits of sage. [1,3]
What is the mode of action of Sage herb benefits?
Sage containing the phenolic and flavonoid compounds responsible for the antioxidative activity. The phenolic compounds play both the mechanisms involving activation of endogenous antioxidant defense systems and scavenge the free radicals to balance the reactive species. Rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid present in sage have potent antioxidant property.
Essential oils present in sage inhibit 46% of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase level and thus prevent degradation and inactivation of acetylcholine neurotransmitter and helps to smooth signal transferring between neurons. Thus, Sage improve neurological health. Traditionally, Sage is used for treating Alzheimer's disease. Herbal researchers found the cytoprotective effect of sage effective to protect the formation of amyloid-beta plaques. Amyloid-beta plaques formation is the basic pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease progression. Rosmarinic acid obtained from sage leaves has neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidative property against amyloid-beta toxicity.
Ursolic acid, the phytochemical present in sage inhibits angiogenesis, acts against tumor cells invasion and metastasis. Thus this herbal remedy suppresses cancer cell progression.
Sage stimulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma functioning to balance energy utilization and regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus it helps to balance HDL/LDL level, reduces adipose tissue size, insulin resistance and lowers serum triglycerides level. 
What are the different forms of Sage?
Depending upon the species sage has a different variety. The following are some of the important sage species which have therapeutic potential.
- Common sage (Salvia officinalis)
- Chinese sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)
- Spanish sage : (Salvia lavandulaefolia) 
Sage has the following dosage forms
Sage Tincture: Traditionally used by an herbal practitioner with a dose of 2 to 4 ml thrice a day.
Sage Tea: Sage tea bags contains 1 - 2 grams of sage tea powder to prepare a cup of sage tea. One can take a maximum three times a day.
Sage Essential Oil: This essential oil can use for inhalation purpose or can be used in massage therapy by mixing with a carrier oil. 
Sage beenfits prevention of chronic disease conditions
A vast variety of diseases like diabetes, heart diseases, cancer, brain dysfunction, the weakened immune system develops due to increased oxidative stress condition. Antioxidant supplementation may require to neutralize free radicals and prevent these disease conditions. A research study reported that consumption of sage tea for two weeks significantly improves liver antioxidant status. Experts also recommended consumption of 300 ml of sage tea twice daily helps to improve antioxidant defense mechanism, which can improve the lipid profile, without causing any side effects related to hepatotoxicity.
Sage benefits improve memory
Sage acts as a memory booster by improving acetylcholine functioning. It elevates mental alertness, and clam down the mental stress and contentedness increase. A report stated that consumption of sage effective to improve memorization speed and elevate mood. The essential oil present in sage improves word recalling ability. The aroma of sage essential oil is responsible for improving cognitive functioning. Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) system also acknowledged that sage can significantly improve the quality of memory.
Prevent Dementia and Alzheimer's disease
A randomized clinical trial conducted to check the efficacy of sage against Alzheimer's disease reported that ethanolic extract of sage (both common and Spanish sage) effective to reduce mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease condition.
Treatment of sage can elevate mood and provide benefits in patients suffering from an advanced stage of dementia. Sage provides long-term protection against dementia.
Sage benefits in diabetes
The Antidiabetic property of Sage tea is comparable as metformin, an oral glycemic agent against type II diabetes. This benefit is obtained as the sage treatment reduces liver glucose production and enhances insulin action.
An animal study reported that that sage has anti-diabetic property due to its glucose-lowering effect. In this research result, it has found that sage treatment did not alter the pancreatic insulin production, but could reduce serum glucose level in type I diabetic rats due to its insulin-like activities. It is effective to provide protection against diabetes-associated complications such as hypertension, increase heart rate and obesity.
Sage benefits in cancer
The anticancer property of Sage is effective to prevent colorectal cancer. Experts also recommended sage tea consumption showed preventive effect against colon cancer. The cytotoxic activity of sage root extract is effective against human prostate cancer.
Sage benefits in lowering Cholesterol
Sage improve overall blood cholesterol level and effective to control hyperlipidemic condition by lowering low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels, as well as increase the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Balancing HDL/LDL ratio and lowering triglycerides level helps to reduce cholesterol level.
Sage benefits for weight loss
Sage reduces the adipose size tissue and inhibits triglyceride levels. Thus, this herb effective to reduce obesity. Experts recommended as they found sage can control obesity by inhibiting the pancreatic lipase activity.
Control menopausal symptoms
A hot flash is a common symptom occurs in menopausal women. Sage able to alleviate this menopausal symptom. A multicentre clinical trial confirmed the efficacy of sage against hot flash symptoms.
Sage benefits for infection treatment
Sage has potent antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria. The antibacterial efficacy of sage is effective to prevent dental caries and other oral bacterial infection. Sage is also acting as a natural food preservative. The essential oil present in sage has antibacterial efficacy.
Anti-diarrheal and antispasmodic
Sage inhibits gut motility and reduces the frequency of loose motion. This herb is also activated voltage-sensitive potassium channels along with weak calcium antagonist activity. Thus, this herb acts as an anti-diarrheal and antispasmodic. [1,3]
Sage Side Effects
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has considered that Sage is generally safe and approved to use this herb as a spice in food preparation or as a seasoning purpose. Sage containing thujone consumption in excess amount causes negatively affect the nervous system. Prolonged treatment with Sage leaf extract or oil extracted from this may cause vomiting, rapid heart rate, restlessness, vertigo, tremors, seizures, and kidney damage. More than 12 drops of essential oil are considered as a toxic dose. Within therapeutic dose, sage is safe to use. 
- Mohsen Hamidpour et al. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer. J Tradit Complement Med. 2014 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 82–88. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.130373. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4003706/
- Sage. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.https://nccih.nih.gov/health/sage
- Hamidpour R. Medicinal Property of Sage (Saliva) for Curing Illnesses Such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Autism, Heart Disease and Cancer: A Brief Review. Arch Cancer Res. 2015, 3:4.
- Sage Benefits. Indigo Herbs.https://www.indigo-herbs.co.uk/natural-health-guide/benefits/sage