According to WHO, 19 million people die each year from cardiometabolic diseases. Cardiometabolic diseases include cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and conditions like metabolic syndrome and type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
The several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, and an unhealthy diet. According to a 2010 study, an unhealthy diet including sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.
A recently published paper in the Journal of Endocrine Society by Dr. Essop et al examined 36 studies to find the relationship between the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (such as juice and soda) and the risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension.
Metabolic syndrome includes excess fat around the waist, hypertension, high blood glucose, and high cholesterol. Most of the studies examined in the review showed a relationship between the risk of metabolic syndrome with sugar-sweetened beverages. People who consumed one or more sugary drinks per day were at significantly high risk for metabolic syndrome. This risk is more in women as compared to men. There can be changes in the metabolism of the body leading to increased bad cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and fasting blood glucose levels. A 2012 NEJM study showed that body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage increased significantly in the children drinking sugar-containing beverages.
Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which the body is not able to metabolize blood glucose properly. Prediabetes is a medical condition in which blood glucose is higher than normal but not as diabetes range. In the review article, 9 studies looked at the risk of diabetes/Prediabetes and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some studies showed 40% more risk of developing diabetes with even as little as 2 sugar-sweetened beverages per week. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can lead to excessive fat accumulation leading to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes.
Hypertension is high blood pressure in the body and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages causes inflammation, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. One study of 5100 patients showed a more than 50% increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with almost daily use of sugar-sweetened beverages. Another study showed a 74% higher risk of developing hypertension if more than three sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed a day.