How Avena sativa benefits were found?
Avena sativa or Oat grass belongs to the Poaceae family, which comes under the grass family. Oat is a Mediterranean-origin based crop. The stem of the oats plant is termed as Avena sativa. The Avena sativa height is almost 1.5 meters. The root of this grass is yellow-colored. Avena sativa is collected mainly during the milky stage of the harvesting of this crop. In this period, the top of the oats released a white secretion. The native places of Avena sativa are North Africa, France, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, and Afghanistan, where it found extensively. Avena sativa is completely gluten-free. 
In 2,000 BCE, oats had been used for both human and animal diets due to its great nutritional value. In folk medicine, Avena sativa was used for several health benefits and treating different ailments. Avena sativa extract was used as a tonic to maintain healthy nerves. It can reduce the stress level and activate both physical and psychological well being. Avena sativa was also used for treating dysmenorrhea, menstrual cycle disorders, UTI, and osteoporosis. 
What are the phytochemicals present in Avena sativa?
Avena sativa is a good source of protein along with fibers and carbohydrates. It is rich in multiple vitamins including vitamin A, pantothenic acid, vitamin B, Vitamin C, vitamin E and K. Different trace minerals like iron, manganese, zinc, silicon dioxide, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium are also present in oats grass. The green Avena sativa is a rich source of chlorophyll A and B, all amino acids, including Isoleucine, Leucine, lysine and other bioactive constituents like flavonoids, lecithin, beta-glucan, and enzymes. Polyphenols and tricin are the phytochemicals present in Avena sativa providing anti-oxidant property. 
What is the Mode of action of Avena sativa?
The chemical constituents of Avena sativa responsible for health benefits, which are as follows:
- Avena sativa is a good source of insoluble fibers. These are not absorbable through the gut wall and provide bulk to the digested foods. Thus it acts as a bulk-forming laxative and promotes defecation. Avena sativa also contains flavone, which has muscle relaxing property and used to treat abdominal cramps. 
- The soluble fibers present in Avena sativa increase the absorption of cholesterol and excrete out them through defecation. Therefore, plasma cholesterol level becomes decreases. 
- The alkaline PH of Avena sativa can neutralize the acidic PH of blood. 
- Avena sativa contains flavonoids compounds along with tricin. All these phytochemicals provide anti-oxidant properties to Avena sativa. 
- One German study showed that Avena sativa straw induced alteration of nervous system signaling assists to improve cognitive functioning. 
- β-glucan present in Avena sativa able to form a gel and prolong the carbohydrate absorption rate in the bloodstream by slowing down the digestion process. 
- Avena sativa straw can enhance the dopamine secretion and also inhibits MAO- B secretion. 
- Avena sativa increases the free testosterone level and decreases dihydrotestosterone formation. 
What are the different forms of Avena sativa?
Liquid extract, dry extract and expressed juice are the tree common herbal dosage forms that are available. The recommended dose is 5ml to 10ml, whereas dry dosage forms can be given for 3 gm. 
Avena sativa Uses
• Lowering cholesterol level and can control hypercholesterolemia
• Stress management
• Controlling diabetes
• Prevent malnutrition
• Nerve Tonic
• Improve concentration and solve short-term memory loss
• Nicotine addiction control
• Immune function improvement
• Prevent constipation and improve digestion
• Women health- enhancement
• Prevent menopausal issues
• Improve libido in men
It prevents constipation and related digested disorders. The regular clearance of bowel is one of the most important criteria for improving digestion.  Avena sativa fibers also act as prebiotics in the colon and hence are effective in colorectal cancer. 
The FDA claims that an effective daily intake of β-glucan for controlling serum cholesterol levels. Avena sativa is a good source of β-glucan. The usual recommended dose of Avena sativa for this purpose is 3 g per day. However, this can differ among different individuals and depends upon the initial cholesterol content of the individual. 
Balance pH of the Body
Our blood pH is slightly alkaline and stays in between 7.35 – 7.45; but most of the food, which are fried, oily, spicy are acidic. Intake of this food often change our body pH and influence different diseases. The acidic pH of the body leads to acidosis and interferes with the normal cellular functioning. Fibromyalgia (pain symptoms in the muscles, bones and leads to reduce the working ability) is one of the long-term effects of acidosis. The pH of the Avena sativa is alkaline and intake of Avena sativa juice helps to neutralize the acidic effect and gradually maintain the pH of the blood. 
Free- radicals formation causes early aging and also initiates different diseases. Avena sativa juice reduces free radicals generation and also acts as a scavenger of free radicals. Thus it acts as an anti-aging property. 
Improve Central Nervous System Functionality
The Central nervous system controls almost all physiological functioning. But stress can decrease the nervous system activities. Avena sativa is considered one of the most nutritive components for activating the nervous system. Even it can alter the nervous system signaling during stress, which reduces anxiety, other associated symptoms of stress enhancement, like insomnia, depression, etc. Also, Alternative and Complementary Medicine published a human study report revealed that Avena sativa improves cognitive functioning scores. However, the cognitive functioning improvement of Avena sativa supplementation is mainly significant in individuals with impaired cognitive functioning. 
Reduce Blood Glucose Level
Blood glucose enhanced in a diabetic patient can promote several other metabolic disorders, including cardiac disorder, kidney failure, etc. Therefore, the reduction of blood glucose levels in a diabetic patient is one of the therapeutic management to control diabetes and other associated disease conditions. Avena sativa is rich in soluble fibers, which provides appetite filling effect and reduce hunger. Besides, Avena sativa is a low glycemic index food and thus blood glucose level decreases. 
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for mood enhancement. With increasing age, dopamine secretion decreases, which gives multiple symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, short-term memory loss. These all indicate brain aging. MAO- B is an enzyme, responsible for diminishing the dopamine functioning by decreasing its secretion.
The article published in Life Extension Magazine demonstrated that Avena sativa can able to inhibit MAO- B secretion and it's functioning and increase dopaminergic functioning. Thus it reduces all brain aging-related symptoms and enhances mood. 
Increase Testosterone Level
Testosterone is an important male sex hormone. Free testosterone is capable to increase sex drive, libido and muscle growth. A study conducted in California found that Avena sativa increases the free testosterone level in plasma by reducing its bounding. Testosterone when bind up formed dihydrotestosterone, which causes prostate enlargement. Therefore, Avena sativa decreasing dihydrotestosterone formation by increasing free testosterone levels, which may reduce the risk of prostate enlargement. 
Reduce The Urge of Nicotine Inhalation
Smoking is one of the most harmful habitual conditions, as it causes nicotine dependence. The stoppage of smoking often provides nicotine withdrawal symptoms. University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) published one article, where it was stated that Avena sativa can reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. A clinical trial conducted in India showed that 1 ml alcoholic extract of Avena sativa reduced the number of cigarette smoking in a day and also decrease smoking urge. 
Green Avena sativa is a rich source of anti-oxidant due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals. Besides, all the vital nutrients like vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids also assist to maintain nutritional balance and prevent diseases. Thus Avena sativa consumption assists in prolonging life. 
Good Diet Option for Celiac Disease Sufferer
Gluten is present in almost every wheat-containing foods. Celiac disease sufferers have a certain digestive problem due to gluten-sensitivity. Therefore gluten-containing diet is strictly restricted for Celiac disease sufferers. Food containing gluten intake destroys the villi, the tiny projections of small intestine responsible for food absorption leads to insufficient absorption of the nutrients. Thus, celiac disease sufferers often have malnutrition. Avena sativa is a gluten-free and better choice for Celiac disease sufferers. 
Avena Sativa Side Effect
Within the dose range, it is safe to use.
When Should I Avoid Intake Avena Sativa?
Children below 12 years of age should avoid intaking this herbal preparation. It is better to avoid intake of Avena sativa herbal medicine during pregnancy and lactation due to a lack of evidential safety data. Individuals who have the coeliac disease should avoid intake of this herbal preparation. 
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