How Saw Palmetto health benefits were found?
Saw Palmetto is a berry plant which has old medicinal history to treat different disease conditions. But, this herbal ingredient becomes a popular herbal ingredient for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. In the United States of America, the southeastern coast region is the native place of this plant. Saw Palmetto abundantly found in Alabama, Florida, inland, South Carolina, and Texas. Native Americans first started to use this Saw Palmetto berry for genitourinary disorders. Since 1870, herbal researchers continue to research about this herb and discovered many health benefits. Now, Saw Palmetto herbal preparations are OTC products in America, and people buy these products to treat their genitourinary problems and also for treating other health benefits. Other Western countries including European countries also use this herb for its therapeutic benefits. The European Association of Urology guidelines also introduces this herbal remedy as to a treatment for the reduction of nocturnal urinary frequency after receiving clear data from the placebo-controlled human trail. 
What are the phytochemicals present in Saw Palmetto?
The primary phytochemical present in Saw Palmetto is permixon and esterified fatty acids. Apart from these, sterols, flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, and other substances are present in a smaller amount. 
The lipid-sterol fraction in Saw Palmetto berry is composed of many phyto-ingredients like triglycerides, phytosterols, fatty acids, and their ethyl esters. beta-sitosterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, and stigminerol are different phytosterols present in Saw Palmetto berry. Capric, caproic and caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic and palmitic are different fatty acids contained in these fruits. Arabinose, farnesol, galactose, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, lupenone, lupeol, polysaccharides, quercetin, resins, roifolin, uronic acids, and tannins are other phytochemicals present in Saw Palmetto. Monoacylglycerides has significant cytotoxic activity on human prostate cells. 
What is the mode of action of Saw Palmetto health benefits?
Herbal researchers had proposed several mechanisms of action which exerts medicinal benefit of this plant, which includes:
- Ant- androgenic activity
- Anti-inflammatory effect
- Type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5α-reductase inhibition.
- Restrict cell proliferation by inhibiting prolactin and growth factor.
- Anti-edema effect
- Anti-estrogenic activity. 
Different laboratory-based research studies had found the above-mentioned mechanism of actions of Saw Palmetto. But in most of the cases, the used dose is much greater. However, a human trial conducted on 33 male patients with BPH showed that permixon, the active constituent of Saw Palmetto could reduce the prostate dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level significantly and provide therapeutic benefit against BPH.  Saw Palmetto extracts responsible for enzyme inhibitory activity which is responsible for conversion of testosterone into DHT. Increased level of DHT does not only cause BPH but also contributes to urinary tract disorders. The untreated condition also mediates infertility. 
Polysaccharides obtained from Saw Palmetto extract responsible for the immunostimulatory effect and inhibit the formation of inflammatory mediators like 5-lipoxygenase activity, which blocks the arachidonic acid pathway. Thus it is effective to reduce swelling. 
Saw Palmetto extracts anti-edema activity by blocking of androgen activity. 
What are the different forms of Saw Palmetto?
Different herbal manufacturing companies prepare Saw Palmetto extracts containing medicinal products, dietary supplements, and cosmetic products.
- Sterko and Prostamol Uno are two medicinal products available for treating mild prostate hypertrophy.
- Saw Palmetto, MultiProsti are two dietary supplements used as a supportive treatment for mild prostatic hypertrophy.
- Profolan: is a dietary supplement used to block DHT formation.
- Prostenal Perfect: This dietary supplement is especially recommended to support prostate function and health of the genitourinary and urinary tract.
- Gold-Vit for men: Vitamin supplement for men.
- O’Herbal shampoo, conditioner, and mask are cosmetic items to support weak hair growth.
- Ducray Sabal is a hair cosmetic item recommended for oily hair.