Ginseng is a herb having a wide range of medicinal properties including anticancer, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular promoting property, immune booster, stress-relieving, antioxidant and central nervous system activator. Scientifically Ginseng is known as Panax ginseng, which belongs to the Araliaceae plant family. The term' Panax' is derived from the word panacea, which means a cure for all diseases. 'Panax' containing productsis generally considered as a health tonic, as it is a source ofphysical strength, improve body resistance capacity and impart longevity.
Since 2000 years back, the traditional use of this herb is started in East Asian countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. Ginseng has many varieties. Among them, Panax ginseng is also known as Asian or Korean Ginseng. The use of Ginseng herbal product is now common in Western countries also. North America and European countries widely sale Panax ginseng containing the herbal product.
Ginseng has a strong adaptogen property, which increases the threshold of physical, chemical, and biological stress tolerance capacity to build-up general vitality. This herbal product is commonly used to enhance the physical and mental stamina. Much herbal pharmaceutical company formulates Ginseng products, which are locally available as over the counter medicine in China, Korean countries to treat general fatigue and weakness.
Phytochemicals present in Ginseng
Different types of ginsenosides are primary phytochemicals present in Ginseng. Ginsenosides are saponin group of phytochemicals which have dammarane triterpenoid structure. Yet now 50 different varieties of ginsenosides are present in Ginseng and ongoing research studies try to find out more varieties.
What is the Mode of action of American Ginseng followed to prevent and cure diseases?
- The medicinal property and therapeutic application of Ginseng include immunomodulatory functions, antidiabetes, anticancer, and CNS improving functioning, like better learning capacity, memory booster, and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. All these benefits usually obtained due to the presence of Ginsenosides phytochemicals.
- Research review report stated that ginseng extract acts on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system to boost the physiological and psychological activity. Animal research study result has proven that treatment with Panax ginseng product can enhance body defense mechanism by activating phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, and the production of interferon. Research result also found the significant improvement of physical and mental performance in the study subjects. Panax ginseng provides vasodilation; increases body resistance against exogenous stress factors; and also provides hypoglycemic activity.
- Ginseng acts on macromolecules present in body fluids, which is also termed as a humoral immune response but does not activate spleen cell functioning. Ginseng extract is effective against many infections by exerting cellular immune response and also stimulates the production of microorganism-specific antibodies. Ginsenosides present in Ginseng significantly promote IgG responses and up-regulate both Th1 and Th2 immune responses.
- Ginseng follows diverse mechanisms to exert anticancer property, which include cytotoxicity and differentiation, tumor suppression, anti-inflammatory property, anti-metastasis and restricts angiogenesis, increases the activity of the anticancer medication, and prevents multidrug resistance.
- Anti-diabetic property of Ginseng is obtained by stimulating the insulin release from pancreatic islets.
- Acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate is an important neurotransmitter of the brain and actively participate in cognitive functioning. Ginsenosides such as Rg1, Rb1, Rg3, and Rh2 present in Ginseng acts on central M-cholinergic receptors, and increase the ACH activity. This phytochemical also enhances the cholinergic system functioning. These ginsenosides also facilitate Glutamate release to improve the learning and memory capacity. Moreover, the presence of these Ginsenosides prevents neurodegenerative diseases.
- One of the common traditional use of ginseng is the improvement of overall reproductive functionality. This benefit is obtained by altering different neurotransmitter signaling pathways, such as GABA, dopamine and ACH activity. Research expected that ginseng may regulate the pituitary-testis axis at both hormonal and neuronal levels. The overall mechanism involves improving male reproductive functioning include increase testosterone, luteinizing hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone for libido. Improve neurotransmitter activity to stimulates sexual arousal, desire, and orgasm. Increase Nitric Oxide Synthesis and provide a vasodilating effect for prolonging penile erection (PE). Improve sperm count, motility, and quality, which is effective against infertility.
Different Forms of Ginseng
Different research studies have recommended 200 mg dosage of Ginseng extract. However, some herbalist recommended 0.5 to 2 g of dry root dosage form for short term treatment plan, which can be used in the form of tea or chewed the raw product.
The different herbal manufacturing company formulates Ginseng capsule with different dosage including 100 to 600 mg per day in divided doses.
The duration of the treatment period also varies, some research paper suggested long term benefit, whereas some research studies recommend a two-week gap after every two to three weeks of continuous use of ginseng medication.
Some of the commonly used OTC ginseng products are Centrum Herbals Ginseng, Celestial Seasonings Ginseng, Korean Ginseng Extract from Nature's Way, PhytoPharmica's Ginseng Phytosome, Nature Made's Chinese Red Panax Ginseng, and Pharmaton's Ginsana.